Physical Therapy Toolbox: List of Bones in the Human Body

A typical adult human skeleton commonly consists of 206 to 208 or more bones depending on the method used in counting normal variations. The count of 208 considers the sternum to be made up of three bones instead of one; manubrium, body of sternum (also known as the gladiolus) and xiphoid process. Anatomical variation may also result in the formation of more or fewer bones. More common variations include cervical ribs or an additional lumbar vertebra. Babies are born with around 300 to 350 bones, many of which fuse together during growth to create around 206 bones.

In the skull (22)

Cranial bones
   frontal bone
   parietal bone (2)
   yogeo bone (2)
   occipital bone
   sphenoid bone
   ethmoid bone

Facial bones
   mandible
   maxilla (2)
   palatine bone (2)
   zygomatic bone (2)
   nasal bone (2)
   lacrimal bone (2)
   vomer bone
   inferior nasal conchae (2)

In the middle ears (6)
   malleus (2)
   incus (2)
   stapes (2)

In the throat (1)
   hyoid bone

In the shoulder girdle (4)
   scapula or shoulder blade (2)
   clavicle or collarbone (2)

In the thorax (25 or 27)
   sternum (manubrium, body of sternum, and xiphoid process)
   ribs (2 x 12)

In the vertebral column (24)
   cervical vertebrae (7)
   thoracic vertebrae (12)
   lumbar vertebrae (5)

In the arms (2)
   humerus (2)

In the forearms (4)
   radius (2)
   ulna (2)

In the hands (54)
   Carpal (wrist) bones
      scaphoid bone (2)
      lunate bone (2)
      triquetral bone (2)
      pisiform bone (2)
      trapezium (2)
      trapezoid bone (2)
      capitate bone (2)
      hamate bone (2)
   Metacarpus (palm) bones
      metacarpal bones (5 2)
   Digits of the hands (finger bones or phalanges)
      proximal phalanges (5 2)
      intermediate phalanges (4 2)
      distal phalanges (5 2)

In the pelvis (4)
   coccyx
   sacrum
   hip bone (innominate bone or coxal bone) (2)

In the thighs (2)
   femur (2)

In the legs (6)
   patella (2)
   tibia (2)
   fibula (2)

In the feet (52)
   Tarsal (ankle) bones
      calcaneus (heel bone) (2)
      talus (2)
      navicular bone (2)
      medial cuneiform bone (2)
      intermediate cuneiform bone (2)
      lateral cuneiform bone (2)
      cuboid bone (2)
   Metatarsus bones
      metatarsal bone (5 2)
   Digits of the feet (toe bones or phalanges)
      proximal phalanges (5 2)
      intermediate phalanges (4 2)
      distal phalanges (5 2)



Images (Click on image for larger view)


diagram of a human female skeleton, front view


diagram of a human female skeleton, back view



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